A 77-GHz Phased-Array Transceiver With On-Chip Antennas in Silicon: Transmitter and Local LO-Path Phase Shifting

A. Natarajan, A. Komijani, X. Guan, A. Babakhani, and A. Hajimiri

Integration of mm-wave multiple-antenna systems on silicon-based processes enables complex, low-cost systems for high frequency communication and sensing applications. In this paper, the transmitter and LO-path phase-shifting sections of the first fully integrated 77-GHz phased-array transceiver are presented. The SiGe transceiver utilizes a local LO-path phase-shifting architecture to achieve beam steering and includes four transmit and receive elements, along with the LO frequency generation and distribution circuitry. The local LO-path phase-shifting scheme enables a robust distribution network that scales well with increasing frequency and/or number of elements while providing high-resolution phase shifts. Each element of the heterodyne transmitter generates +12.5 dBm of output power at 77 GHz with a bandwidth of 2.5 GHz leading to a 4-element effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of 24.5 dBm. Each on-chip PA has a maximum saturated power of +17.5 dBm at 77 GHz. The phased-array performance is measured using an internal test option and achieves 12-dB peak-to-null ratio with two transmit and receive elements active.