Integrated Phased Array Systems in Silicon

A. Hajimiri, H. Hashemi, A. Natarajan, X. Guan, and A. Komijani

Silicon offers a new set of possibilities and challenges for RF, microwave, and millimeter-wave applications. While the high cutoff frequencies of the SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors and the ever-shrinking feature sizes of MOSFETs hold a lot of promise, new design techniques need to be devised to deal with the realities of these technologies, such as low breakdown voltages, lossy substrates, low-Q passives, long interconnect parasitics, and high-frequency coupling issues. As an example of complete system integration in silicon, this paper presents the first fully integrated 24-GHz eight-element phased array receiver in 0.18-m silicon–germanium and the first fully integrated 24-GHz four-element phased array transmitter with integrated power amplifiers in 0.18-m CMOS. The transmitter and receiver are capable of beam forming and can be used for communication, ranging, positioning, and sensing applications.